Onychomycosis – a fungal disease that affects the nail plate. It becomes brittle, thin, fragile, crumbles, changes color. This disease is very contagious, according to statistics this disease affects about 20% of the population. We will understand in more detail what types of fungus toenails are and how they differ
Classification of fungal infections of the nails
Found more than 500 types of fungi, which may bring trouble to health. But a single classification among fungal infections not. Two main features which distinguish the disease: type of infection and its localization. Photo different types of nail fungus, you can see their features and characteristics.
Classification of localization
Infection can settle in any part of the nail, it becomes the hallmark. The appearance of the affected nail plate varies depending on the localization of onychomycosis.
Description of the basic forms of nail fungus on feet
- The distal — most common type of fungus of the toenails. Infected free edge of the nail. From one end of the plate changes color, it becomes brown, yellowish or grayish. Gradually the area is increasing. The nail plate becomes cloudy, crumble and delaminate. In the process of development of the disease is subungual hyperkeratosis (thickening of the stratum corneum), with the defeat of the entire nail dystrophy of tissues.
- Lateral. The symptoms are the same as for the distal form, but here the source of infection spreading from the lateral edges of the nail.
- Surface white. Appears only on the lower limbs, usually the fungus settles on the thumb, the other four much less. Visually, this form is easily distinguished because of the white spots, located on the entire surface of the nail. Over time the disease progresses and captures a large area of keratinized tissue. The color of the spots can vary from white to yellow or green. The structure of the nail plate becomes friable, porous. Without treatment, the nail may completely disintegrate.
- Proximal. In this form the infection begins with the cuticle, it is red, inflamed, swells, changes its structure and form. The result is a nail roller is separated from the plate, and the infected nail becomes deformed, becomes cloudy and crumbly. If you run the disease, it is possible that the complete destruction of the plate.
- Total dystrophic covers the entire area of the nail, the old form of the proximal or distal of the fungus. The nail plate is deformed, thickens, changes color and collapses partially or completely.
Classification by type of agent
There are different types of the causative agent. Each of them has distinctive features that are important to consider when planning the treatment of onychomycosis. Most often the cause of the disease are fungi, the dermatophytes, and slightly less common yeast of the genus Candida, then a kind of mold. Let's consider them in more detail:
- Dermatophytes. These include the red Trichophyton, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, flocculent Epidermophyton and many others. When infected by these fungi appear spots or stripes of grey or yellow, the remaining areas become muddy, loose edge changes its color, the entire surface of the nail changes and eventually starts to separate from the nail bed. The larger the area of the plate was a different color, the more the disease started.
- Yeast fungi of the genus Candida nail grows thinner, provoking its detachment. This type of pathogen often causes superficial white form, in which there is inflammation of the cuticle. It may be accompanied by pus and cause severe pain. If no action is taken, the nail will turn brown and thin, then completely off the nail bed.
- Mold is a relatively harmless form of the pathogen. He cannot penetrate into the deeper layers of the nail, so it causes a color change of the plate surface. It can be brown, yellow, gray, green, black, any. The color can cover the surface completely or partially.
If you notice signs of nail fungus, be sure to consult a specialist. Fungal infection is spreading rapidly and treatment may be delayed for months.
The stage of development of the disease
Healthy tissue is gradually affected by the fungus. A lot depends on what type of pathogen, but some signs allow you to highlight several key stage of the development of onychomycosis:
- Normotroficheskie, or initial. No evident manifestations of the no, at this stage it is difficult to notice the fungus infection. The nail becomes more matte, may slightly change its color, there are small cracks, bumps on the surface. You may feel a burning and itching.
This period is easily confused with other diseases: psoriasis, changes in the liver. Therefore, to confirm the diagnosis is recommended to consult a dermatologist.
- The hypertrophic form occurs if no action is taken at the initial stage. Symptoms become more pronounced. The nail thickens and darkens, deforms the shape of the plate, it crumbles and collapses.
- Atrophic, or running. Appears when the infection spreads to the cuticle, the latter rejected, inflamed and swollen. The entire surface of the nail plate changes its color, it is completely separated from the bed. The treatment may be ineffective, nail rescue is not always possible due to its atrophy.
Good to know!
The duration of each stage of the disease is individual, it depends on the state of health of the patient. By reducing the immunity of nail fungus progresses faster.
How to cure fungus toenails
Many varieties of fungus toenails require their treatments. Be sure to consult a doctor, he must take the tests to confirm the diagnosis and find out which kind of fungal microorganisms was the cause of the disease.
This is necessary in order to develop an individualized, effective treatment plan. Self-medication can only aggravate the situation.
The most effective medications antimycotic funds quickly to cope with the pathogen and help to completely cure the fungus.
Now there are modern and easy to use lacquers for the treatment of fungus on nails. They are used in the initial stage of disease development or as a means for complex therapy.
For dermatophytes often prescribers with fluconazole, terbinafine, ketoconazole and Itraconazole. Voriconazole and means it contain kill the fungi of the genus dermatophytes, molds and yeast. For the treatment of molds used medicines with itraconazole. Fungi of the genus Candida are most often removed by means fluconazole.
Contagious fungal infection – onychomycosis is very easy to catch by casual contact with the patient. There are different types of nail fungus, which differ depending on the focus of infection and type of pathogen. Also there are different stages of the disease, the initial has no striking features, but it is easier and faster to cure. If you do not take any measures, the infection can attack the nail and the skin around it, but spread on the whole foot. The result may be complete destruction of the nail plate. To avoid this it is recommended to promptly consult a doctor and start their assigned treatment.