In fact, fungi that can lead to the development of pathological conditions of the nail, there are about 50 types but they are all United in three large groups. Moreover, up to 90% of cases the cause of the disease the nail plate becomes fungi that belong to the group of dermatomitsety, of which there are up to 20 different types. Yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida that cause disease of the nails is not often, approximately 10% of cases. The remaining small percentage of disease is caused by destruction of the nail by organisms. Nail fungus in medical terminology sounds like onychomycosis.
According to statistical data the prevalence of the disease is quite wide. Fungus affects up to 20% of the total population of the globe and in Russia this figure reaches 15 million people. The degree of prevalence of the disease among the population is influenced by many factors: the climatic conditions in which lives the population, the social conditions of a particular person, age, gender, profession, etc. in addition, dermatologists have noted a constant increase in the number of those who got sick, both among the adult population and among children. The likelihood of nail fungus on the feet increases with age (the disease is more common among older people who crossed the threshold of 65 years).
The symptoms of nail fungus on feet
The symptoms of nail fungus on the feet will depend on the type of the causative agent of an infectious process, and the amount of damage to the plate of the nail. The age of the patient is able to influence the speed of recovery. It is known that in children the nail phalanx are affected much less frequently than in the Mature.
The symptoms are different depending on the shape of the fungus:
- The symptoms of nail fungus. Discolouration of the affected plate, and the thickness and luster remain the same. First, the nails appear stripes and spots – their form and size varies, the localization of side of the nail. The color of the spots are yellow or white, if the disease is not treated, the spots increase in size, gradually covering the entire area of the plate. The nail changes color, the remaining normal thickness. Onycholysis – another symptom of nail fungus. Is the inability of plates to increment to the nail bed. In the end, the patient can easily remove it – accidentally or intentionally.
- The symptoms of nail fungus. In addition to color changes, this form of the disease characterized by the thickening of the plates in amounts that exceed 2 mm and more. This increase is due to enhanced growth of flakes of skin under the nail. There is a loss of luster, struck with a plate become dull, begin to crumble. As a result, the nail badly deformed. Onychomycosis – purchase the nail shape that is similar to the claw of a bird, is a frequent symptom of this type of disease. Stronger only destroyed the side of the nail. A complex of symptoms that accompany this form of nail fungus, causes the person begins to experience pain while walking. The color is dark yellow or gray.
- Symptoms of atrophic nail fungus. First and foremost, patients notice a change of color plates, it becomes brownish-gray. Lost the normal luster, the surface of the nail becomes pale and dull. The disease progresses, the plate is destroyed. The final stage of the atrophic form of the fungus is exposure of the nail bed and full necrosis. Over the surface of the bed the patient discovers the layers of friable consistency, which consist of skin scales. Atrophy of the plates occurs in stages, starting from the outer end in the direction in the growth zone of the nail, and cushion. The growth area remains intact longer than other parts of the nail.
- The symptoms of lateral and distal nail fungus. These two types of lesions have in common is that they are often diagnosed in symbiosis and cause the same change parts of the nail plate. Side of the plate, which was subjected to defeat, losing its normal color, becoming dim. Along it are transverse grooves, which have a yellow color. If the nail fungus on the legs appears due to infection by organisms, plates can acquire color from blue-green to black. The nail starts to crumble, becoming on the sides of the rough. After some time, the death of the affected parts, causing the plate to deform. The nail bed is partially naked. The final stage of the disease is characterized by complete destruction of the nail and the opening of the box with flakes of skin at the top. People suffering from pain. If for pathology is aggravated by bacterial infection from the fingernail may be pus when slightly pressed.
- Symptoms proximal nail fungus. This is a rare lesion of the nail plate in the first place affects the area from the skin roller. The main reason for the occurrence of proximal forms of nail fungus is the removal of the cuticle. The nail plate begins to change color to white in a region located near the growth zone. Its spores and mycelium of the fungus has, in the tunnels of the nail, which is located in this area. As they reproduce, the fungus surrounds the entire nail and completely destroys it.
- The total symptoms of nail fungus. If the lateral, distal or proximal form of the disease not exposed to therapy, there comes a total onychomycosis. The nail loses its color, begins to crumble, break down and completely destroyed.
- Symptoms of white superficial nail fungus. In the back of the cushion are opal-white spots, which, as the breeding of fungus, affects the whole nail completely. The spots tend to blend in visually and can recall the scattered fine powder.
Despite differences in clinical manifestations in various forms of fungal infection, there are several common symptoms, including:
- Crumbling of the nail.
- Change the color of the plate;
- A bundle of nail phalanx;
- Painful sensations that occur with the progression of the pathological process;
- You may experience itching in the area surrounding the nail.
Causes of nail fungus on feet
Fungus toenails always appears in the result of infection with organisms. Most often they are dermatomitsety. To penetrate the skin and nails helps them a broad set of proteolytic enzymes they possess. First dermatomitsety bruise the skin of the feet and then spread into the nail plate.
There are three ways in which they penetrate deep into the nail:
- From under the distal (free, lateral) edge of the nail. In this case, the pathological process is localized under the plate – in bed, not the nail. As the proliferation of the fungus, develops subungual hyperkeratosis. This leads to a deterioration of relations between the bed plate and their subsequent separation. From the bed fungi penetrate the nail and slowly destroy it.
- Through the dorsal part of the nail fungi penetrate into it much less often. In this case the process of destruction of the nail will flow much faster.
- The rarest way of spreading through the proximal roller. From the end of the matrix, the fungus penetrates underneath the nail plate and in the box, or deposited in the matrix, there by destroying collagen structure of the nail phalanx. If the lesion of the nail caused by fungi of the genus Candida, the first to be involved in the pathological process of the proximal roller with edema and thickening. However, most often these inflammatory process affects the fingernails.
How to get rid of nail fungus on your feet?
Modern pharmaceutical industry offers people who are diagnosed with fungus of the toenails, a wide selection of effective medications which help to cope with the problem. Funds are available to both local and common action.
The abundance of available special drugs make the individual selection of drugs difficult. Because the fungus can attack the toenails, but also mucous membranes, any organ and tissue. Therefore, it is important to undergo a comprehensive diagnosis and get medical advice regarding the treatment of nail fungus.
Therapeutic strategy is based on four points:
- Accounting of the area affected;
- The time that has passed since the beginning of the disease;
- Pathological changes caused by disease;
- The presence of comorbidity.
Modern drugs don't just destroy fungal organisms and stop their development, but tend to accumulate in the thickness of the nail plate, remaining there for a long time. This allows to reduce considerably terms of therapy, up to 8 – 16 weeks. This will be enough time to fully get rid of the problem. Important is an integrated approach to therapy, the combination of local treatment by oral means. This begs the question of how to choose a remedy and to get rid of nail fungus on your feet? Below is a look at all of the modern medicines.
Without exception, antifungal medicines have many side effects. This applies both to drugs for topical and oral administration. Therefore, the preparation regimens, monitoring the patient's condition, evaluation of therapy – all this lies within the competence of a specialist. Invalid self-selection and use of medicines. In the future to stop the progression of the disease will be problematic.
Antifungal nail Polish
If the fungus toenails is not moved to a running stage, it is possible to use only local therapy. This can be used specialized varnishes, or solutions, which include various components.
In addition, to achieve a therapeutic effect, you can use patches. To make the nails look more attractive, you can cover treatment lacquer apply nail.
Systemic antibacterial agents is required for admission in those cases where the nail fungus on the feet are moved in a running stage. Only the doctor can choose the best treatment plan. Pills that allow you to get rid of the fungus a lot, but any of them is incompatible with hormonal contraception, some you can't take in children, some are forbidden to receive if there are problems with the liver etc.
The treatment using laser beam is a physiotherapeutic method of treatment. It may only be used in combination with antifungal drugs in order to achieve the effect. Laser therapy by itself will not fully eliminate the nail fungus. This procedure aims to improve the nutrition of the nail, to strengthen blood circulation. As a result, this drug is best penetrates deep into the damaged plate. But the laser to kill the fungus can not.
This method has no contraindications and allows to reduce the risk of disease recurrence. Laser therapy is a safe and painless way to fight fungal infection in his toenail.
Prevention of nail fungus on feet
If a person's immune system functioning properly, the nail fungus on the feet not to hurt him even after infection, as the immune system alone neutralizes him. If fungal infection is still spreading on the nail plate, it is necessary to choose the optimal methods of dealing with it.
This is a rather laborious process, so can help to prevent infection, the following preventive measures:
- You need to avoid walking barefoot on the beach;
- Closed rubber shoes – the best shoes for saunas and baths;
- Socks for everyday wear should be made of cotton fabric;
- It is forbidden to put on the shoes of another person;
- You should keep the feet dry.